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LITERARY    LIFE                       269

the Renaissance of 1917 became out of date overnight, and
were generously labelled as "old men." Young China was
disgusted and rebelled. Most intellectual leaders had learned
to keep quiet and started collecting curios and old seals. Hu
Shih continued to thunder and to roar, but his words fell on a
comparatively apathetic audience, which wanted something
very much more radical. Ghou Tsojen, Yu Tafu and writers of
the Yiissu school were too much individualists to join the
throng. Lusin fought, resisted the tide for a year and then
went over.

In the short space of hardly two years (1928-9), over a hun-
dred Russian literary works, long and short, were put on the
market with hectic speed, before the Government could quite
wake up to the situation. These include works by the following
authors: Lunacharsky, Liebediensky, Michels, Fadeev, Glad-
hov, Kollontay, Shishkov, Romanov, Pilniak, Ognyov, Sos-
novsky, Shaginian, Yakovlev, Alexei Tolstoy, Demidov,
Erenburg, Arosev, Babel, Kasatkin, Ivanov, Iva, Luuts,
SannikofF, Seyfullina, Bakhmetev, Fedin, Serafimovitch, Prish-
vin, Semenov, Sholokhov, NVNV, Vessely, Zoschenko,
Tretiakev, Sobole, Kolosov, Formanov, and Figner. We have
omitted to mention, of course, the "great Russians" of pre-
revolutionary days, like Pushkin, Tchekov, Tolstoy and
Turgeniev, who had before this time been familiar to the read-
ing public. Tchekov's complete works have been translated;
Tolstoy is known through twenty of his works, including the
long War and Peace (translated in part only), Anna Karmina
and The Resurrection; Dostoievsky is a great favourite (seven of
his works, including Crime and Punishment}; Turgeniev had long
been known (twenty-one of his works translated). Gorky,
bridging across the two periods, is, of course, popular.
Eroshenko, Andreyev and Artzybashev are also popular, due
to Lusin's influence. As a sign of the feverish demand for things
Russian may be mentioned the curious fact that twenty-three
out of the barely over hundred post-revolutionary works had
double translations published by rival companies at about the
same time, including four which appeared in three simul-
taneous translations* Among the more popular works may be
mentioned Madame Kollontay's Red Love (two translations),